Wednesday, December 28, 2011

牛津詞典 (Oxford Dictionaries) 最近的新詞:之七

我是線上《牛津詞典》專業版 (Oxford Dictionaries Pro) 的訂戶,最近注意到網站發布了最新一季的新詞。這一季的新詞共有 45 個,我分批介紹,並加註了自己的翻譯和眉批,附上詞典所提供的例句一條和詞源 (若有),以饗格友。

前六批 (之一~之六) 介紹了按字母順序的頭 30 個,這次介紹第七批再次的 5 個。請注意,這裡的《牛津詞典》不是史上最大的《牛津英語詞典》(The Oxford English Dictionary),而是以《英語牛津詞典》(Oxford Dictionary of English) 為骨幹,兼納《新牛津美國詞典》(New Oxford American Dictionary) 數位化而成。名字過份類似,的確令人混淆。

31. mathlete /ˈmaθliːt/ (參加數學競賽的) 數學選手 noun
定義:a person who takes part in a mathematics competition, typically one organized for schoolchildren.
例句:As with other mathletes, he spends up to four hours a day on his hobby—or what he simply calls his 'calculations'.
詞源:1930s: blend of MATHEMATICS (or MATH) and ATHLETE

32. metamaterial /ˈmɛtəməˌtɪərɪəl/ 超材料 noun Physics
定義:a synthetic composite material with a structure such that it exhibits properties not usually found in natural materials, especially a negative refractive index.
例句:The team began making these metamaterials and demonstrated several that scattered electromagnetic waves unlike any known materials.

33. microgeneration /ˌmʌɪkrə(ʊ)dʒɛnəˈreɪʃ(ə)n/ 微型發電 noun [mass noun]
定義:the generation of electricity or heat on a small scale, typically for domestic use and by methods that do not contribute to the depletion of natural resources, such as solar panels.
例句:It was good news to hear that new buildings will have to cover 15% of their carbon emission through design and microgeneration.
衍生詞microgenerate 微型發電 verb

34. petrichor /ˈpɛtrʌɪkɔː/ 雨後泥土香 noun [mass noun]
定義:a pleasant smell that frequently accompanies the first rain after a long period of warm, dry weather.
例句:Other than the petrichor emanating from the rapidly drying grass, there was not a trace of evidence that it had rained at all.
詞源:1960s: blend of PETRO- 'relating to rocks' (the smell is believed to be caused by a liquid mixture of organic compounds which collects in the ground) and ICHOR "希臘神祇血管中的靈液"

35. SAHM 家庭主婦 abbreviation
定義:stay-at-home mom (or mother).
例句:My own mother was a SAHM and I love her for it.

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