Thursday, December 15, 2011

牛津詞典 (Oxford Dictionaries) 最近的新詞:之二

我是線上《牛津詞典》專業版 (Oxford Dictionaries Pro) 的訂戶,最近注意到網站發布了最新一季的新詞。這一季的新詞共有 45 個,我分批介紹,並加註了自己的翻譯和眉批,附上詞典所提供的例句一條和詞源 (若有),以饗格友。

上一批 (之一) 介紹了按字母順序的頭 5 個,這次介紹第二批的次 5 個。請注意,這裡的《牛津詞典》不是史上最大的《牛津英語詞典》(The Oxford English Dictionary),而是以《英語牛津詞典》(Oxford Dictionary of English) 為骨幹,兼納《新牛津美國詞典》(New Oxford American Dictionary) 數位化而成。名字這樣令人混淆,牛津大學出版社是否該檢討一下?

6. born digital (文字、錄音)生而數位的;只有數位形式的 adjective 定義:denoting texts or recordings produced in digital form, rather than having been converted from print or analogue equivalents 例句:As research libraries are discovering, born-digital materials are more complicated and costly to preserve than anticipated.

7. cage diving 鋼籠潛水 noun [mass noun] 定義:the activity of being lowered into the sea in a protective steel cage in order to view sharks or other dangerous sea creatures at close range例句:An environmental scientist has warned that cage diving is teaching the sharks to associate humans with food. 衍生詞cage diver 鋼籠潛水員

8. carbon debt 碳債;碳負債 noun 定義:the imbalance between the carbon footprint of a particular country, group, person, etc. and any carbon offsetting that has been agreed or undertaken to counteract this 例句:Burning biomass releases carbon dioxide instantly, while repaying that carbon debt through newtree growth takes years.

9. chemtrail /ˈkɛmtreɪl/ (飛機的)化學凝結尾 noun 定義:a visible trail left in the sky by an aircraft and believed by some to consist of chemical or biological agents released as part of a covert operation, rather than the condensed water of a vapour trail 例句:Conspiracy theorists have been going wild with speculation over the nature and purpose of chemtrails. [詞源:1990s: blend of chemical and trail, on the pattern of contrail]

10. corporatocracy /ˌkôrpərəˈtäkrəsē/ 公司王國 noun (plural corporatocracies) 定義:a society or system that is governed or controlled by corporations 例句:In this age of corporatocracies, the money goes not to the inventor, but to the company. [詞源:未提供,但應是 corporation "公司" 與 -ocracy "統治" 縮合而成]

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